Russia's foreign ministry says the Israeli ambassador to Moscow was summoned to explain an exchange of fire last week between Israeli jets and Syrian government forces.
Russia is a top ally of Syrian President Bashar Assad and has provided key military and political backing to his forces, allowing him to turn the tide of the conflict.
Deputy Foreign Minister Mikhail Bogdanov says Russia "expressed concern" over the exchange in which Syria fired missiles at Israeli warplanes that were on a mission to destroy a weapons convoy destined for Hezbollah, the Iranian-backed Lebanese militant group.
Monday's report in Russia's RIA Novosti news agency quotes Bogdanov as saying that Israeli Ambassador Gary Koren "was asked about this" incident.
Hezbollah is also fighting alongside Assad's forces in Syria's brutal six-year civil war.